CA IPCC IT-SM Notes

IPCC-IT POWER CAPSULES

  1. Accounting Information Systems Information systems that record and report business transactions, the flow of funds through an organisation, and produce financial statements. This provides information for the planning and control of business operations, as well as for legal and historical record keeping.
  2. Algorithm A set of standard operations that guarantee a solution to a problem in a finite number of steps.
  3. Application development system A set of programs designed to help programmers develop application programs.
  4. Application generator A software package that supports the development of an application through an interactive terminal dialogue, where the programmer/ analyst defines screens, reports, computations, and data structures.
  5. Application software Programs that specify the information processing activities required for the completion of specific tasks of computer users. Examples are electronic spreadsheet and word processing programs or inventory or payroll programs.
  6. Array A series of objects all of which are the same size and type. Each object in an array is called an array element. For example, you could have an array of integers or an array of characters or an array of anything that has a defined data type. Arrays can have more than one dimension. A one-dimensional array is called a vector; a two- dimensional array is called a matrix.
  7. Artificial Intelligence (Al) A science and technology whose goal is to develop computers that can think, as well as see, hear, walk, talk, and feel. A major thrust is the development of computer functions normally associated with human intelligence, for example, reasoning, inference, learning, and problem-solving.
  8. ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange A standard code used for information interchange among data processing systems, communication systems and associated equipment.
  9. Assembler A language similar to machine language but that uses abbreviations, called mnemonics, to represent machine instructions.
  10. Audit Trail The presence of media and procedures that allow a transaction to be traced through all stages of information processing, beginning, with its appearance of a source document and ending with its transformation into information on a final output document.
  11. Automated data processing The processing of data into information with the use of a computer.
  12. BASIC: Beginner’s Ail-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code A programming language developed at Dartmouth College that is popular for microcomputer and timesharing systems.
  13. Batch processing A category of data processing in which data are accumulated into batches and processed periodically. Contrast with real-time processing.
  14. Binary digits (bits) The smallest unit of computer storage used to store data and programs in primary and secondary storage media.
  15. Boot To load part of the operating system, called the kernel, into main memory.
  16. Browser Software that lets users view documents created in HTML or hypertext markup language.
  17. Built-in Function Most programming languages come with a prewritten set of functions that are termed as built-in functions.
  18. Bulletin board system (BBS) A communications service that allows users to share information with other users about areas of special interest.
  19. Bus A set of conducting paths for movement of data and instructions that interconnect the various components of the CPU.
  20. Business Information System Information systems within a business organisation that support one of the traditional functions of business such as marketing, finance, or production, Business information systems can be either operations or management information systems.
  21. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Restructuring and transforming a business process by a fundamental rethinking and redesign to achieve dramatic improvements in costs, quality, speed, and so on.
  22. C++ An object-oriented version of C that is widely used for software package development.
  23. Cache Memory A high-speed temporary storage area in the CPU for storing parts of a program or data during processing.
  24. CD-ROM Compact disk read-only memory; an optical-disk storage method that only lets you read data already stored on the disk.
  25. Central processing unit (CPU) The brain of a computer system. It contains the control unit arithmetic unit, and logic unit. –
  26. Centralized data processing Large mainframe computer systems that support multiple users and multiple application programs from one location.
  27. Centralized databases The data-based of an organization are located at one site under the management of one group of people.
  28. Client/server computing When application processing is divided between a client, which is typically a personal computer, and a server, which may be a PC, a minicomputer, or a mainframe. The client processes run on the personal computer and make requests of the server. The client and server may be in the same room or hemispheres apart.
  29. Client/Server Network A computing environment where end user workstations (Clients) are connected to network servers and possibly to mainframe super-servers.
  30. Clock speed The speed at which the CPU completes its internal processing tasks; measured in megahertz.
  31. Closed system A self-contained system that has little or no feedback from its external environment. Such systems tend to deteriorate rather than evolve.
  32. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. A third-generation language used extensively in the development of business application programs.
  33. Cold site A disaster recovery planned location that provides space and infrastructure at a distant location for an existing functional computer system or network when some calamity happens which makes the original system redundant.
  34. Command substitution Command substitution means when some other syntax takes place of the original command. It means in place of the original command this substitute command is executed and it might occur due to some contingent situation too. In this case the output from such a command is bifurcated into separate words at regular intervals but null or blank words are discarded. The output obtained is variable in nature and it is put in place of the original string.
  35. Communications architecture A set of communication standards. Two communications architectures are IBM’s Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and the International Standards Organization’s Open Systems Interconnect (OSI).
  36. Communications network A group of devices connected to one or more communications channels.
  37. Communications protocol A convention – a set of rules and procedures – for completing a communications system task.
  38. Communications server A device that manages external communications for a communications net-work.
  39. Communications software Additional software required to allow a computer to communicate with remote devices or with other computers.
  40. Communications system A system for creating, delivering, and receiving electronic messages.
  41. Compatible Working with or being like another, for example, a micro computer that works like an IBM-PC is called an IBM -compatible computer system.; Software that runs on an IBM-PC is called IBM compatible software.
  42. Computer conferencing A computer system that allows participants in a group to communicate messages with all of the other participants in the group.
  43. Computer kiosk A form of electronic market system usually small structures that contain a multimedia micro computer system with a touch screen. Some allow customers to get information about a company, its products, or its services. Others allow customers to select and purchase products and services interactively.
  44. Computer platform The type of computer system used for an organization’s tasks. Size is one type of platform (e.g. Mainframe, minicomputer, PC). The platform also could be the operating system (e.g., a Windows or UNIX system)
  45. Computer terminal A common input/output device, often uses an attached keyboard for data entry and screen to display commands, keystrokes and system responses.
  46. Computer virus A hidden program that may cause damage to computer system files.
  47. Computer-aided design/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) The use of computer systems with advanced graphics hardware and software to support engineering design and to convert CAD drawings into finished products with little human intervention.
  48. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) A set of tools to help application developers complete the software development process more quickly and more accurately.
  49. Computer-based training The use of computer systems for instruction. Often these software packages are used to train employees in specific skills.
  50. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) A concept that stresses the use of computer hardware and software to simplify, integrate and automate all facets or production.
  51. Computerized accounting systems A series of software modules or system that may be used separately or in an integrated fashion to automate accounting functions such as general ledger, fixed assets, sales order processing, accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory control, purchase order processing and payroll.
  52. Constants A constant is a value that never changes. Constants are also used in spreadsheet applications to place non-changing values in cells.
  53. Co-processors Processors, other than the central processing unit, that help the CPU in its work; for example, an I/O channel used in a mainframe computer and a numeric co-processor used in a microcomputer system.
  54. Critical success factor (CSF) method A business information system planning technique that identifies key business goals and strategies that must be addressed with information technology.
  55. Data Administration A data resource management function that involves the establishment and enforcement of policies and procedures for managing data as a strategic corporate resource.
  56. Data consistency When the same or similar data fields in files should contain the same data but contain different data
  57. Data Design The design of the logical structure of databases and files to be used by a proposed information system. This produces detailed descriptions of the entities, relationships, data elements, and integrity rules for system files and databases.
  58. Data dictionary A software module and database containing descriptions and definitions concerning the structure, data elements, interrelationships, and other characteristics of an organization’s databases
  59. Data dictionary/directory A database management tool that contains the names and descriptions of all of the data elements within a database and how each data element relates to other elements.
  60. Data Facts or observations about physical phenomena or business transaction. More specifically, data are objective measurements of the attributes (characteristics) of entities such as people, places, things, and events.
  61. Data manipulation language A specialized used by programmers to retrieve and process data from a database.
  62. Data model A conceptual framework that defines the logical relationships among the data elements needed to support a basic business or other process.
  63. Data redundancy – Redundancy means idleness- when some value or data element occurs more than once in the program and eventually remains unused thereby escalating the pressure on the scarce resources of the system by making the program heavy.  In huge computer programs this can create a big memory issue to it should be avoided as much as possible.
  64. Data validation Controls that are used to prevent incorrect data from being entered into a program or a database. Controls are also used to prevent accurate data from being overlooked and not entered at all.
  65. Data warehouse A system that stores, retrieves, manages, or other-wise manipulates massive amounts of data that may be from the organization’s databases and external sources. The warehouse of data is often separated from the organization’s production databases so that users can use this resource without reducing the response time for an organization’s routine data processing operations.
  66. Database is a collection of logically connected or related records of files(information). A database put together numerous information records which are stored in various files or folders in order to create a single collection of consolidated information which can serve many purposes.
  67. Database Administration A data resource management function that includes responsibility for developing and maintaining the organization’s data dictionary designing and monitoring the performance of databases and enforcing standards for database use and security.
  68. Database administrator (DBA) An MIS professional responsible for planning, designing, and maintaining an organization’s data resources.
  69. Database maintenance The activity of keeping a database up-to-date adding, changing, or deleting data.
  70. Database management software A set of programs that creates an manages databases.
  71. Database management system (DBMS) A collection of software programs that allows users to organize and store data in a uniform way and to access day from more than one file.
  72. Database processing Utilizing a database for data processing activities such as maintenance, information retrieval, or report generation.
  73. Decentralization An organizational pattern in which an information system or an office function is operated and managed by individual departments of an organization.
  74. Decentralized data processing A data processing environment in which microcomputers or minicomputers support local applications, systems, and operations personnel.
  75. Decision Support Systems (DSS) This is an information system that makes use of various streams of data available combined with the analytical ability of the user to find an amicable solution or generate a desired report from that data. Various decision models can be used to reach a conclusion and these models tend to give different result in terms of output.
  76. Decision table An analysis tool that uses a tabular structure to specify what action should be taken given a set of conditions.
  77. Decision tree An analysis toll that uses a treelike structure to specify what action should be taken given a set of conditions.
  78. Decryption Decoding data that has been encoded
  79. Dedicated server A computer system that performs one or a limited number of special tasks, such as communications, printing, or file management on a network.
  80. Desktop publishing software (DTP) Software that allows the user to design professional-looking documents with both text and graphics.
  81. Desktop Short for desktop computer system. A microcomputer system that fits on a desktop.
  82. Detailed system design The process in the system development life cycle in which specifications for the proposed physical system are developed.
  83. Direct access A method of storing data in which each record is given a specific disk address so that it can be found directly without reading every record sequentially from the beginning of a file.
  84. Disk drives Direct access storage devices used for auxiliary or secondary storage of data.
  85. Display screen A visual output device that looks like a TV screen used for displaying computer commands, keystrokes, or the results of computer processing.
  86. Distributed databases The concept of distributing databases or portions of a database at remote sites where the data are most frequently referenced. Sharing of data is made possible through a network that interconnects the distributed databases.
  87. Distributed processing A form of decentralization of information processing made possible by a network of computers dispersed throughout an organization.! Processing of user applications is accomplished by several computed interconnected by a telecommunications network, rather than relying on ore* large centralized computer facility or on the decentralized operation of severa independent computers.
  88. Documentation A collection of documents or information that describes a computer program, information system, or required data processing operations.
  89. DSS Generator A software package for a decision support system that contains modules for database, model, and dialogue management.
  90. Dumb terminals Terminals that do not have much intelligence or memor? dumb terminals rely on the intelligence and storage of the computer system tc which they are attached.
  91. Edit To modify the form or format of data. For example: to insert or delets characters such as page numbers or decimal points.
  92. EDP (Electronic data processing) auditors Individuals responsible for auditing an electronic information system.
  93. Electronic commerce The buying and selling, marketing and servicing, are delivery and payment of products, services, and information over the Internet, intranets, extranets, and other networks, between an internetworked enterprise and its prospects, customers, suppliers, and other business partners.
  94. Electronic data interchange (EDI) Bilateral information systems that allow two organizations to exchange information electronically. Typically, ED links an organization to its customers or suppliers.
  95. Electronic Data Processing (EDP) The use of electronic computers to process data automatically.
  96. Electronic kiosk Kiosks are computer terminals placed in walls or other structures on streets and public places and can be used for a variety of markets purposes, such multimedia presentations, electronic catalogs, and electrons shopping.
  97. Electronic mail Sending and receiving messages between networked PCs over telecommunications networks. E-mail can also include data files, software and multimedia messages and documents as attachments.
  98. Electronic payment systems Alternative cash or credit payment method using various electronic technologies to pay for products and services f electronic commerce.
  99. Electronic spreadsheet package An application program used as computerized tool for analysis, planning, and modeling that allows users to enter and manipulate data into an electronic worksheet of rows and columns.
  100. End user Anyone who uses an information system or the information it produces.
  101. End user computing systems Computer based information systems that directly support both the operational and managerial applications of end users.
  102. Exception report A report that highlights results from an operation that exceed or do not meet the expected standard for the organization.
  103. Executive information systems (EIS) An information system that provides strategic information tailored to the needs of top management.
  104. Executive support system (ESS) An executive information system with additional capabilities, including data analysis, decision support, electronic mail, and personal productivity tools.
  105. Expert system (ES) A computer-based information system that uses its knowledge about a specific complex application area to act as an expert consultant to users. The system consists of a knowledge base and software modules that perform inferences on the knowledge and communicate answers to a user’s questions.
  106. Extranet Atypical extranet is an intranet that allows the organization to connect to a wider group than the organization itself, such as an organization’s customers and suppliers. The idea of an extranet is to let a select group of external entities, such as an organization’s Web site not open to the general public.
  107. Facsimile (fax) A device that scans text or graphic images and converts the scanned data to electrical impulses that can be transmitted to compatible facsimile devices over a telephone or communications network.
  108. Feasibility study A preliminary study that investigates the information needs of end users and the objectives, constraints, basic resource requirements, cost/benefits, and feasibility of proposed projects.
  109. Feedback (1) Data or information concerning the components and operations of a system. (2) The use of part of the output of a system as input to the system.
  110. Fifth generation The next generation of computing, which will provide computers that will be able to see, hear, talk, and think. This would depend on major advances in parallel processing, user input/output methods, and artificial intelligence.
  111. File A collection of records all of the same type.
  112. File locking A data-handling method that permits only one person at a time to update a file.
  113. File management Controlling the creation, deletion, access, and use of files of data and programs.
  114. Firewall Protection systems that monitor all Internet or external communications activity at a site. Closing all connection attempts from unauthorized users. May provide activity logs to identify intruders, examine programs and files as they are downloaded for viruses and to ensure that users downloading files and programs have the authority to do so.
  115. Firmware Computer programs stored in the form of electrical circuitry on ROM chips.
  116. Format The arrangement of data on a medium.
  117. FORTRAN: Formula Translation A high-level programming language widely utilized to develop computer programs that perform mathematical computations for scientific, engineering, and selected business applications.
  118. Fourth-Generation Languages (4GL) Programming languages that are easier to use than high-level languages like BASIC, COBOL, or FORTRAN. They are also known as nonprocedural, natural, or very-high-level languages.
  119. Freeware Software available free of charge, often through FTP sites, Web sites, and bulletin boards. Also called public domain software.
  120. Full-duplex transmission A transmission mode that permits the simultaneous transmission of messages in both directions on a communications channel.
  121. Functional requirements The information systems capabilities required to meet the information needs of end users. Also called system requirements.
  122. Fuzzy logic systems Computer-based systems that can work upon such form of data that are incomplete or only partially true, that is, raw data(technically called fuzzzy data – a hanky panky name! ). These computer systems handle unstructured, complex & unclear problems with little detailing available.
  123. Graphical user interface (GUI) An operating environment that uses pictures, symbols, or menu selections to represent computer commands.
  124. Group decision support systems (GDSS) An interactive computer-based system that facilitates the solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together in a group.
  125. Hackers People (also called crackers) who illegally gain access to the computer systems or networks of others.
  126. Hardware Computer equipment, such as disk drives, screen, keyboards, modems, and scanners.
  127. Host A computer system on a network that provides other computer systems or terminals with services.
  128. Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) Information systems that support human resource management activities such as recruitment, selection and hiring, job placement and performance appraisals, and training and development.
  129. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) A popular page description language for creating hypertext and hypermedia document for World Wide Web and intranet Web sites.
  130. Implementation The phase in the system development life cycle in which program coding, testing, and documentation occur.
  131. Import To copy data from one computer file for use in another program.
  132. Index A table that shows the storage location of a record.
  133. Information Information is data placed in a meaningful and useful context for an end user.
  134. Information management Managing information as an important organizational resource.
  135. Information processing A concept that covers both the traditional concept of processing numeric and alphabetic data, and the processing of text, images, and voices. It emphasizes that the production of information products for users should be the focus of processing activities.
  136. Information Technology (IT) Hardware, software, telecommunications, database management, and other information processing technologies used in computer-based information systems.
  137. Input Data that are entered into a computer system.
  138. Inquiry processing Computer processing that supports the real-time interrogation of online files and databases by end users.
  139. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) A communications service that encodes voice, data, facsimile, image, and video communications digitally so that they can be transmitted through a single set of standardized interfaces.
  140. Intelligent terminal A smart terminal, often a microcomputer, that stores and processes data without host assistance.
  141. Interface The link between either a user or a program and the computer. Also a connection between two or more systems or subsystems.
  142. Internet The Internet is a network of computer networks. It provides the infrastructure for a variety of functions such as e-mail, Web access, file transfer, and discussion groups.
  143. Internetworking Connecting networks together. That might mean connecting networks within and without an organization together.
  144. Interpreter A computer program that translates and executes each source language statement before translating and executing the next one.
  145. Intranet An Internet-like network within an organization. Web browser software provides easy access to internal Web sites established by business units, teams, and individuals, and other network resources and applications.
  146. Job A group of identical positions in an organization.
  147. Kernel The central module of an operating system. It is the part of the operating system that loads first, and it remains in main memory. Because it stays in memory, it is important for the kernel to be as small as possible while still providing all the essential services required by other parts of the operating system and applications. Typically, the kernel is responsible for memory management, process and task management, and disk management.
  148. Key One or more fields within a data record that are used to identify it or control its use.
  149. Knowledge management capability The ability of information technology to capture and disseminate knowledge and expertise to improve a business process.
  150. Laptop computer A microcomputer system that is small enough to fit on your lap.
  151. Laser printer A printer that prints a whole page at once and is often use when drawings, photographs, and graphic images need to be reproduced with high quality or in color, when the number of pages to be printed is large, or when quality and speed are important.
  152. Legacy systems The older, traditional mainframe-based business information systems of an organization.
  153. Liquid crystal display (LCD) A flat, lightweight screen display often used on laptop, notebook, and palmtop computer systems.
  154. Local area network (LAN) An interconnected group of intelligent microcomputers or terminals within a small geographic location.
  155. Local Variables Local variables are declared within the body of a function, and can only be used within that function. This is usually no problem, since when another function is called, all required data is passed to it as arguments. Alternatively, a variable can be declared globally so it is available to all Modern programming practice recommends against the excessive use of global variables. They can lead to poor program structure, and tend to clog up the available name space.
  156. Looping In programming, a loop is a series of instructions that is repeated until a certain condition is met. Each pass through the loop is called ‘iteration’. Loops constitute one of the most basic and powerful programming concepts.
  157. Machine language A programming language where instructions are expressed in the binary code of the computer.
  158. Mainframe A large-size computer system, typically with a separate central processing unit, as distinguished from microcomputer and mini-computer systems.
  159. Management Information System (MIS) A management support system that produces pre-specified reports, displays, and responses on a periodic, exception, or demand basis.
  160. Management levels Management as the performance of planning and control activities at the strategic, tactical, and operational decision-making levels of an organization.
  161. Manufacturing resource planning (MRP-II) Software that extends a production information system to finance, marketing, and other functional areas, includes modules for material requirements planning, shop-floor control, inventory management, and capacity planning.
  162. Master production schedule The schedule of overall production requirements for an organization for a specific period of time.
  163. Material requirements planning (MRP) Software A set of programs that use data from the master production schedule, inventory files, and bill-of-materials systems to help manage production and inventory.
  164. Microprocessor A microcomputer central processing unit (CPU), on a chip. Without input/output or primary storage capabilities in most types.
  165. Millions of instructions per second (MPS) The number of instructions that a computer system can process in a given time period measure of the power of a computer system.
  166. Minicomputer system A mid-sized computer system that is usually smaller in size and power than mainframe computer systems but larger in size and power than micro computer systems.
  167. Modem Modulator/Demodulator A communications device that converts signals from analog to digital and vice versa.
  168. Monitor Software or hardware that observes, supervises, controls, or verifies the operations of a system.
  169. Motherboard The basic board of computer system; often the board on which the CPU chip is placed or that contains the slots to which expansion boards are connected.
  170. Mouse A handheld input device connected to a computer terminal either with a wire or via radio, infrared, or other wireless transmission that lets you enter data or commands without a keyboard. The mouse may use a roller in its base and the movement of the roller sends signals to the terminal that are converted into computer commands.
  171. Multiplexer A device on a communications network that accepts data from more than one slow-speed terminal and combines them for transmission across a higher-speed transmission channel.
  172. Multiprocessing operating system An operating system that can run on a multiprocessing computer system.
  173. Multitasking The ability to execute more than one task at the same time, a task being a program. There are two basic types of multitasking: preemptive and cooperative.
  174. Multiuser Refers to computer systems that support two or more simultaneous I All mainframes and minicomputers are multi-user systems, but most personal computers and workstations are not. Another term for multi-user is time sharing.
  175. Network An interconnected system of computers, terminals, and! communications channels and devices
  176. Neural networks As the name suggests, these software programs are structured like that of human brain’s mesh which is called neuron network. These networks can process numerous bits of information at a single instance and can learn to identify complex logics and program themselves to establish a solution based on their best judgement like we do.
  177. Node A record in a hierarchical database structure. In communications, a node is a computer-controlled switching centre.
  178. Object An element that includes both data and the methods or processes that I act on those data.
  179. Object code A compiled or assembled program of executable machine instructions.
  180. Object-oriented database (OODB) A database that stores and manages objects.
  181. Object-Oriented language An object-oriented programming (OOP) language used to develop programs that create and use objects to perform information \ processing tasks.
  182. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) A capability of some management, decision support, and executive information systems that supports interactive examinations and manipulation of large amounts of data from many perspectives.
  183. On-line database A database that specializes in a topic, such as medical information, legal information, and stock market information, and is available from a network.
  184. Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) A real-time transaction processing system.
  185. Open system A system that operates in an external environment and that needs to receive feedback from that environment to change and to continue to exist.
  186. Operating system A set of programs that manages and controls computer resources, including the CPU, peripherals, main memory and secondary storage.
  187. Operational feasibility The willingness and ability of management, j employees, customers, and suppliers to operate, use, and support a proposed
  188. Operations Support System (OSS) An information system that collects, processes, and stores data generated by the operations systems of an organization and produces data and information for input in to a management information system or for the control of an operations system.
  189. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) The machine identification of printed characters through the use of light-sensitive devices.
  190. Optical disks A secondary storage medium using laser technology to read tiny spots on a plastic disk. The disks are currently capable of storing billions of characters of information.
  191. Optical scanner A device that optically scans characters or images and generates their digital representations.
  192. Organizational feasibility How well a proposed information system supports the objectives of an organization’s strategic plan for information systems.
  193. Outsourcing Contracting with external production resources for phases of the production process.
  194. Peripherals Devices located next to or outside of the CPU; examples include keyboards, display screens, printers, disk drives, and mice.
  195. Physical controls Controls that use conventional, physical protection measures, such as door locks, keyboard locks, fire doors, and sump pumps.
  196. Physical view How records are actually stored on a storage medium as opposed to how people perceive they are stored.
  197. Piping Piping is a mechanism by which the output of one command is passed on as input to another command.
  198. Planning A managerial function that requires evaluating the organization’s resources and environment to establish a set of organizational goals.
  199. Primary key A unique identifier for a record.
  200. Primary storage The main memory of a computer system that stores the data and programs to be processed, see internal memory.
  201. Program A set of instructions that cause a computer to perform a particular task.
  202. Programmed decision A decision that can be automated by basing it on a decision rule that outlines the steps to take when confronted with the need for a specific decision.
  203. Programming language A language used to develop the instructions in computer programs.
  204. Protocol A set of rules and procedures for the control of communications in a communications network.
  205. Prototype A working model. In particular, a working model of an information-system that includes tentative versions of user input and output, databases and files, control methods, and processing routines.
  206. Random access memory (RAM) A type of memory in which data is stored addressable locations so that the data can be accessed directly without having to move sequentially through all the data stored; random access memory is volatile.
  207. Read-only memory (ROM) Computer memory that can only be read, not written to or changed. Program stored in ROM are not lost when power is shut off.
  208. Realtime Pertaining to the performance of data processing during the actuai time a business or physical process transpires, in order that results of the data processing can be used to support the completion of the process.
  209. Redundancy In information processing, the repetition of part or all of a message to increase the chance that the correct information will be understood by the recipient.
  210. Redundant array of inexpensive disks The use of multiple, inexpensive hard drives so that more than one drive may be accessed at the same time. RAID systems work by spreading chunks, or blocks of data, across many hard disks.
  211. Register A device capable of storing a specified amount of data such as one word.
  212. Relational Data Structure A logical data structure in which all data elements within the database are viewed as being stored in the form of simple tables. DBMS packages based on the relational model can link data elements
  213. Relational database A database structure in which all data elements in the database are viewed as simple tables that can be linked together through common data elements.
  214. Requirements document The blueprint or definition of requirements used as a basis for designing a new information system.
  215. Restart/recovery systems Tools that restart a system or a database and recover any lost data in the event of a failure.
  216. Scalability The ability of hardware or software to handle the processing demands of a wide range of end users, transactions, queries, and other information processing requirements.
  217. Search engine A software tool used on the web. A search engine allows you to enter one or more key words describing the topic of your search and then scans computers throughout the world to find documents containing those key words. The search engine displays the documents that it found in hypertext so that you click on any document link and go to it to read the information.
  218. Shell The outermost layer of a program. Shell is another term for user interface. Operating systems and applications sometimes provide an alternative shell to make interaction with the program easier. For example, if the application is usually command driven, the shell might be a menu-driven system that translates the user’s selections into the appropriate commands.
  219. Software Detailed instructions or programs that make computer hardware apply itself to a task.
  220. Software suites A combination of individual software packages that share a common graphical user interface and are designed for easy transfer of data between applications.
  221. Spooling Simultaneous peripheral operation online. Storing input data from low-speed devices temporarily on high-speed secondary storage units, which can be quickly accessed by the CPU. Also, writing output data at high speeds onto magnetic tape or disk unit from which it can be transferred to slow-speed devices such as a printer.
  222. Standards Measures of performance developed to evaluate the progress of a system toward its objectives.
  223. Supercomputers The largest, most powerful computer systems made, often used by the military, scientific, and government agencies to process huge volumes of data quickly.
  224. Supply chain management Integrating management practices and information technology to optimise information and product flows among the processes and businesses partners within a supply chain.
  225. Symbolic constants Symbolic constants can be assigned a value during initialization and are represented by a word.
  226. System (1) It can be defined as a clutch of a few or many elements, equipment, components which are inter related and combed into one single working unit (2) A group of connected components (wired or wireless) being used  together to achieve a common target by the user (human or AI) in which inputs are accepted and worked upon to create the desired output (3) An assemblage of process or softwares or technical components or softwares working as a single unit e.g. a Banking software (4) An well established group or team  of human-machine-software which is set to achieve a common goal or pre specified target.
  227. Systems analysis The phase in the systems development life cycle in which the current system is studied in order to understand how the system works and to determine the scope of the problems that exist.
  228. Systems Design Deciding how a proposed information system will fulfill the information needs of end users. It includes various activities e.g. logical and physical designs, user interfaces, database which is worked upon by the processing design activities that produce system specifications with the ultimate goal to satisfy the preset system requirements finalized during the initial stage of system analysis.
  229. Systems design documentation All the specifications, including report design, screen design, file layouts, program logic, and operational procedures, that are used to develop the new system.
  230. Systems development (1) Conceiving, designing, and implementing a system. (2) Developing information systems by a process of investigation, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance. Also called the systems development life cycle (SDLC), information systems development, or application development.
  231. Systems development methodology A set of procedures that conform to the systems development life cycle and that identify what events and activities should occur in, and what tools will be used.
  232. Systems evaluation The process of MIS professionals examining hardware and software alternatives to support specific information systems requirements.
  233. Systems Implementation The stage of systems development in which hardware and software are acquired, developed, and installed; the system is tested and documented; people are trained to operate and use the system; and an organization converts to the use of a newly developed system.
  234. Systems investigation The screening, selection, and preliminary study of a proposed information system solution to a business problem.
  235. Systems maintenance The monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of a system to make desirable or necessary improvements.
  236. Systems thinking Recognizing systems, subsystems, components of systems, and system interrelationships in a situation. Also known as a systems context or a systemic view of a situation.
  237. Technological Implementation Formal programs of implementation-support activities to encourage user acceptance and productive use of reengineered business processes and new information technologies.
  238. Telecommunications Pertaining to the transmission of signals over long distances, including not only data communications but also the transmission of images and voices using radio, television, and other communications technologies.
  239. Template A partially completed spreadsheet table or form that can be reused and completed as required.
  240. Time-sharing Providing computer services to many users simultaneously while providing rapid response to each. The user pays only for the services that are used.
  241. Total Quality Management Planning and implementing programs of continuous quality improvement, where quality is defined as meeting or exceeding the requirements and expectations of customers for a product or service.
  242. Transaction Processing System (TPS) An information system that processes data arising from the occurrence of business transactions.
  243. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) An access code (such as http://sun.com) for identifying and locating hypermedia document files, databases, and other resources at Web sites and other locations on the Internet, intranet and extranets.
  244. Update To add, change, or delete information to keep it current and accurate.
  245. User defined functions and library functions: C functions can be classified into two categories, namely, library functions and user-defined functions, main is an example of user defined function, ‘printf’ and ‘scanf’ belong to the category of library functions. The main distinction between user-defined and library function is that the former are not required to be written by user while the latter have to be developed by the user at the time of writing a program. However the user defined function can become a part of the C program library.
  246. User interface The features of a program through which the user interacts or interfaces with it, is called the user interface.
  247. Value chain A depiction of the value activities that are linked together to create, distribute and maintain products and services. The primary activities of the value chain include inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and service.
  248. Variable It is a symbol, sign or a name that signifies a particular value. As in mathematics, to solve a problem we assume the desired value to be X and then we apply logic according to the demand of the question and ultimately derive the result. Likewise in computer programming languages like C, COBOL etc. the variables are taken to initiate the program with the goal to produce the user defined result. These variables can be numeric, alphabetical characters or even memory addresses in binary code.
  249. Video conferencing Combines both voice and television images to provide two-way conferencing between groups located at different sites.
  250. Web page A document on a server attached to the World Wide Web. Usually the document is in hypertext form.
  251. Web site A computer system, attached to the World Wide Web, that allows people to access the hypertext documents it stores. The computer system is located by its universal resource locator (URL), or more simply, its Web address.
  252. Whiteboard An electronic black board that captures the writing on a board in digital form and uses the telephone system to transmit the data to television screens or other whiteboards at the remote locations.
  253. Wide area network (WAN) A communications network that is spread out over a wide geographical area.
  254. Window One section of a computer’s multiple-section display screen, each of which can display different data or programs.
  255. Word processing The automation of the transformation of ideas and information into a readable form of communication. It involves the use of computers to manipulate text data in order to produce office communications in the form of documents.
  256. Workforce planning Identifying the human resources needed to meet the organizational objectives specified in the strategic plan, including forecasting the supply and demand of the required work force.
  257. Workstation A high-end micro-computer that is used by technical and professional people who required fast, powerful, computer systems with high-quality, high-resolution screens. The term can also be applied to any device connected to a network.
  258. World Wide Web The World Wide Web is a subset of the computer systems on the Internet. The Web consists of those computer systems (the servers) that store documents that can be viewed by other computer systems (the clients).
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